The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment on Mother-Child Interaction of Mothers of Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in counselling, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor in Depatment of psychology, Allameh TabaTabaei university, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associated Professor in Depatment of psychology, Allameh TabaTabaei university, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Research has shown that mother-child interaction between the child with ADHD and the mothers is impaired. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment education program on mother-child interaction of mothers with children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder.
Methods: ­ In this study, a quasi-experimental and pretest-posttest design with a control and three-month follow-up was used. The statistical population of this study consisted of all mothers with children with ADHD in Marand. From this population, 40 individuals were selected by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. The Robert Mother-Child Interaction Questionnaire (1961) was administered in three stages of the study. Eight sessions of acceptance and commitment training were administered to the experimental group. The findings were finally analyzed using SPSS software version 23 and repeated measurement test.
Results: The results of repeated measures and post hoc tests showed that acceptance and commitment based training on improvement of acceptance interaction style, modification of hypersensitivity interaction style, facilitation interaction style and exclusion interaction style of mothers with children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder The effect of training program has been consistent over time (p≤0/001).
Conclusion: Acceptance and commitment training affects mother-child interaction Mothers of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, so counselors and psychologists can use this approach to improve mother-child interaction.


  1. Chang YK, Hung CL, Huang CJ, Hatfield BD, Hung TM. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory
    control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2014; 29(3):217-
    2. Ambuabunos EA, Ofevwe EG, Ibadin MO. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among
    primary school pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine. 2011;10(2). 30-41.
    3. Cosgrove L, Krimsky S. A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 panel members' financial associations with
    industry: a pernicious problem persists. PLoS Medicine. 2012 Mar 13;9(3): e1001190.
    4. Zoghi Paydar M, Ghasemi M, Bayat A, SanayeiKamal M. Mental Health Comparison of Mothers with Children
    with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Exceptional Education. Exceptional education, 2017;
    15 (8): 1-10
    5. Leigh AJ. The influence of the mother-child relationship on the development of resilience in the learning
    disabled child (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa).
    6. Schilling CM, Walsh A, Yun I. ADHD and criminality: A primer on the genetic, neurobiological, evolutionary,
    and treatment literature for criminologists. Journal of Criminal Justice. 2011 Jan 1;39(1):3-11.
    7. Waxmonsky J, Pelham WE, Gnagy E, Cummings MR, O'Connor B, Majumdar A, Verley J, Hoffman MT,
    Massetti GA, Burrows-MacLean L, Fabiano GA. The efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate and behavior
    modification in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation. Journal of
    Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2008 Dec 1;18(6):573-88.
    8. Yousefi, Shakila. Comparison of parenting stress of mothers of children with ADHD with mothers of normal
    children. Journal of Mental Health Principles, 2009; 11 (42): 115-122.
    9. Johnston C, Mash EJ. Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review and
    recommendations for future research. Clinical child and family psychology review. 2001 Sep 1;4(3):183-207.
    10. Hoffman C, Paradise J. Health insurance and access to health care in the United States. Annals of the New York
    Academy of Sciences. 2008 Jun;1136(1):149-60.
    11. Castonguay LG, Eubanks CF, Goldfried MR, Muran JC, Lutz W. Research on psychotherapy integration:
    Building on the past, looking to the future. Psychotherapy Research. 2015 May 4;25(3):365-82.
    12. Twohig MP, Levin ME. Acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for anxiety and depression: A
    review. Psychiatric Clinics. 2017 Dec 1;40(4):751-70.
    13. Dymond S, Roche B. A contemporary behavior analysis of anxiety and avoidance. The Behavior Analyst. 2009
    Apr 1;32(1):7-27.
    14. Perrelli JG, Zambaldi CF, Cantilino A, Sougey EB. Mother-child bonding assessment tools. Revista Paulista de
    Pediatria (English Edition). 2014 Sep 1;32(3):257-65.
    15. Anbari K, Mahdavian A, Nadri S. Predictive factors of mother-child communication patterns in the mothers
    referred to Khorramabad Shahid Madani hospital in 2012. yafte. 2014; 15 (5) :13-22
    16. Duff H, Larsson A, McHugh L. Evaluations of self-referential thoughts and their association with components of
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. 2016 Jan 1;5(1):39-47.
  2. 17. Kowalkowski JD. The impact of a group-based acceptance and commitment therapy intervention on parents of
    children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. 2012; [Doctoral Dissertaition], Ypsilanti, mishigan
    18. Josefsson T, Ivarsson A, Gustafsson H, Stenling A, Lindwall M, Tornberg R, Böröy J. Effects of mindfulnessacceptance-commitment (MAC) on sport-specific dispositional mindfulness, emotion regulation, and self-rated
    athletic performance in a multiple-sport population: an RCT study. Mindfulness. 2019 Aug 15;10(8):1518-29.
    19. Lee JW, Ha JH. The effects of an acceptance-commitment therapy based stress management program on
    hospitalization stress, self-efficacy and psychological well-being of inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of
    Korean Academy of Nursing. 2018 Aug 1;48(4):443-53.
    20. Bögels