Effectiveness of Training Child-Oriented Mindfulness Skills on the Parent-Child Interaction and Social Behaviors of the Children with Low Self-Control

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in General Psychology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Department of Psychology-Human science Faculty- Islamic Azad University Branch Shahrekord-Sahrekord-Iran


Introduction and purpose: Behavioral problems such as low self-control cause communicational and psychological damages in the children. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of child-oriented mindfulness skills on the parent-child interaction and the children’s social behaviors with low self-control.
Methodology: The present study was experimental with pretest, posttest and control group design. The statistical population of the present study included the children with low self-control in the city of Isfahan in academic year 2020-21. 40 children were selected through multi-stage clustered random sampling method and they were randomly accommodated into experimental and control groups (each group of 20 children). The experimental group received ten seventy-five-minute sessions of intervention regarding child-oriented mindfulness skills (Burdic, 2017) during two-and-a-half months. Three children from the experimental group and two from the control group were omitted from the study. The applied questionnaires in this study included Children's Self-control Questionnaire, Parent child relationship scale or PCRS by and social skills questionnaire. The data from the study were analyzed through ANCOVA method via SPSS23 software.
Findings: The results showed that training child-oriented mindfulness skills have significant effect on the parent-child interaction (0.57) and social behaviors (0.50) of the children with low self-control (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study it can be concluded that training child-oriented mindfulness skills can be employed as an efficient method to improve parent-child interaction and social behaviors of the children with low self-control through employing techniques such as mindful emotions and thoughts and being in the present time.


Ahmadi, N., Chaudhry, C.H., Olango, G., Molla, M.(2016). The Relation of Social bahavior Therapy (PCIT) in WellBeing of Young Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(10), 218-223.
Aslan, S., Cheung-Blunden, V. (2012). Where does self-control fit in the Five-Factor Model? Examining personality
structure in children and adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 670-674.
Bertrams, A. (2012). How Minimal Grade Goals and Self-Control Capacity Interact in Predicting Test Grades,
Journal of Learning and Individual Differences. 22(6), 833-838.
Carnes-Holt, K. (2012). Child-parent relationship therapy for adoptive families. Family Journal; 20(4), 419-426.
Chiang , Y., Lin, D., Lee, C., Lee, M. (2015). Effects of parenting role and parent–child interaction on infant motor
development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. Early Human Development, 91(4), 259-264.
Chronis-Tuscano, A., Lewis-Morrarty, E., Woods, K.E., O’Brien, K.A., Mazursky-Horowitz, H., Thomas, S.R.(2016).
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy With Emotion Coaching for Preschoolers With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23(1), 62-78.
Deng, X., Zhang, J.M., Hu, L., Zeng, H. (2019). Neurophysiological evidences of the transient effects of mindfulness
induction on emotional processing in children: An ERP study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 143, 36-43.
Friese, M., Hofmann, W. (2009). Control Me or I Will Control You: Impulses, Trait Self Control, and The Guidance
of Behavior, Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 795-805.
Ghasemi Bistagani, M., Musavi Najafi, F. (2017). Effectiveness of Child-Centered Mindfullness on Social Skills and
Self-Efficacy of Children with Learning Disabilities. Social Behavior Research & Health (SBRH), 1(2), 91-99.
Grusec, J.E., Davidov, M., Lundell, L. (2002). Prosocial and helping behavior. PK S, C H, editors: Blackwell.
Ha, O., Lim, S., Bruce, J.M., Bruce, A.C. (2019). Unhealthy foods taste better among children with lower self-control.
Appetite, 139, 84-89.
Hofmann, S.G., Angelina, F., Gomez, B.A. (2017). Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Anxiety and Depression,
Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 40(4), 739-749.
Hopwood, T.L., Schutte, N.S.(2017). A meta-analytic investigation of the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on
post traumatic stress. Clinical Psychology Review, 57, 12-20.
Keute, M., Krauel, K., Heinze, H., Stenner, M.(2018). Intact automatic motor inhibition in attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder. Cortex, 109, 215-225.
Kline, G., Honaker, J., Joseph, A., Scheve, K. (2001). Analyzing Incomplete Political Science Data: An Alternative
Algorithm for Multiple Imputation. American Political Science Review, 95, 49-69. 
Kroska, E.B., Miller, M.L., Roche, A.I., Kroska, S.K., O’Hara, M.W.(2018). Effects of traumatic experiences on
obsessive-compulsive and internalizing symptoms: The role of avoidance and mindfulness. Journal of Affective
Disorders, 225, 326-336.
Lack, S., Brown, R., Kinser, P.A. (2020). An Integrative Review of Yoga and Mindfulness-Based Approaches for
Children and Adolescents with Asthma. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 52, 76-81.
Ludmer, J.A., Salsbury, D., Suarez, J., Andrade, B.F. (2017). Accounting for the impact of parent internalizing
symptoms on Parent Training benefits: The role of positive parenting. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 252-258.
Matson J.L., Rotatori, A, F., Helsel, W.J. (1983), development of a Rating Scale to Measure Social Skils in children:
The Matson evaluation of social skills with youngsters (MESSY), Behavior Research and Therapy, 21(4), 335-340.
Matson, J.L., Boisjoli, J.A. (2008). Cutoff Scores for Matson Evolution of Social Skills for Individual with severe
Retardation for Adults with Intellectual Disability, Behavior Modification, Vol. 39, Pp. 109-120.
Meng, H., Ma, J., Shen, Y., Chang, R. (2020). The influences of father absence on primary school children's pedestrian
behaviors: The mediating effect of self-control. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7, 100-105.
Michaeli-Monee, F. (2009). Structural relationships between psychological well-being and perceived emotional
intelligence, the ability to control negative thinking and depression in mothers of children with mental retardation and
comparing it with normal children. Research in Exceptional Children, 9(2), 103-120.
Mikami, A.Y., Miller. M., Lerner, M.D.(2019). Social functioning in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
and autism spectrum disorder: transdiagnostic commonalities and differences. Clinical Psychology Review, 68, 54-70.
Murray, L.K, (2002). Self -control training in young children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B,
Sciences & Engineering, 63, 17-30.
N’zi, A.M., Lucash, R.E., Clionsky, L.N., Eyber, S.M.(2018). Enhancing Parent–Child Interaction Therapy With
Motivational Interviewing Techniques. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(2), 131-141.
Perry-Parrish, C., Copeland-Linder, N., Webb, L., Sibinga, E. M. (2016). Mindfulness-Based Approaches for Children
and Youth, Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 46(6), 172-178.
Pianta, R.C. (1994). Patterns of relationships between children and kindergarten teacher. Journal of school psychology,
32, 15-32.