The Relationship between worldliness with Religious Beliefs and Mental Health of Athlete and Non-Athlete Students

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ms of Sport Management, Department of Physical Education, Khoy Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoy, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Department of Physical Education, Khoy Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoy, Iran. (Corresponding Author)


Introduction: Injury behavior is one of the most common problems among adolescents today.The aim of this study was to predict self-injurious behaviors based on parent-child relationship and emotional regulation with the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas and coping styles.
Methods: The method of the present study was correlation of structural equations. The statistical population of this study consisted of high school students in Tehran in the academic year 2020-2021,of which 300 samples were selected by cluster random sampling. Samplers completed the Intentional Self-harm Scale (DSHI), Lazarus Coping Strategies (WOCQ), Young Schema (YSQ), Cognitive Emotion Regulation (CERQ), and Parent-Child Relationship Assessment (PCRS).
Results:  Findings showed that the structural model of the study based on the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas and coping styles with stress between parent-child relationship and emotional regulation with self-harming behaviors fits with the collected data. Emotional coping style in a positive way and problematizing coping style in a negative and significant way, initial maladaptive schemas in a positive and significant way, adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies in a negative and non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies in a positive and significant way The parent / child relationship negatively and significantly predicts self-harming behaviors.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that in order to prevent and control adolescents' self-harming behaviors, it is necessary to pay attention to the parent-child relationship and early maladaptive schemas, coping styles and stress regulation.


  1. Ugwu F, Ugwu C. Anointing without money: Exploring the relationships between materialism,
    happiness and daily spiritual experience in a Nigerian sample. International Journal of Asian
    Social Science. 2013; 3(5):1196-1207.
    2. Ibn-e Sho'beHarani, Hasan Ibn-e Ali. Tohaf olOghol. Tehran: Amir Kabir; 2003: p. 201(Arabic).
    3. Motaghi-e Hendi,Taghi-e Din. Beirout: Moasesat-olResalah; 1992: p. 194 (Arabic).
    4. Mosavi Khomeini, Rohollah. Adab-olSalat.Tehran: Moasese-ye Tanzim va Nashr-e Athar-e
    Emam Khomeini; 2009: P.49- 51(Arabic).
    5. Khansari, Jamal. Sharh-e Qorar-olHekam.Tehran: Daneshgah-e Tehran; 1987: P.200 ( Arabic).
    6. Pakizeh Ali. A comparative study of students' mental health and the effect of spiritual activation
    on it. 4th National Seminar on Student Mental Health, Tehran. 2004 (Persian).
    7. Karami Jahangir, Roghanchi Mahmoud , Attari Yousefali, Bashideh Kiomars, Shokri Mahtab.
    A Study of Multiple Relationships between Religious Orientation and Mental Health in Razi
    University Students. Journal of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran
    University. 2006; 13(3): 31-52 (Persian).
    8. Masoom Muhammad Rehan, Sarker Moniruzzaman.The Effect of Materialistic ValueOrientation on Religiosity in Bangladesh: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of religions. 2017;
    10: 1-14.
    9. Rakrachakarn V, Moschis G P, Ong F S, Shannon R. Materialism and Life Satisfaction: The Role
    of Religion. Journal of Religion and Health.2013; 54(2): 413–426.
    10. Parsamehr Mehraban, Niknejad Mohammad Reza, Rasooli Nejad Seyed Pouya, Asghari Vahid.
    A Survey of the Sanctification of Sport among Athletes and Related Factors (Case Study:
    Athletic Students of Yazd University). Journal of Sports Management and Motor
    Behavior.2015;12(24): 173-186. (Persian).
    11. Derakhshandeh Shirin, Esmailzadeh Kandahari Mohammad Reza.Investigating the Impact of
    Religiosity and Religious Tendencies on Sports Participation of Athletic and Non-Athletic
    Students, 2nd International Conference on Applied Research in Physical Education, Sports and
    Championship Sciences, Tehran, Salehan University. 2017(Persian).
    12. Akbari Allah Reza, Fathi Ashtiani Ali. Construction of a scale for measuring secularism (Masad)
    based on religious texts. Journal of Psychology and Religion. 2009; 2(4):71-100 (Persian).
    13. Stark Rodney. Must all Religion be Supernatural? in: Bryan Wilson (ed.), The Social Impact of
    New Religions, New York: Rose of Sharon Press. 1977:P. 59-177.
    14. Mohammadi Seyed Davood, Mehrabizadeh Honarmand Mahnaz. The Relationship between
    Religious Attitude and Place of Control and the Role of Gender. Quarterly Journal of
    Psychological Research. 2007; 9(3,4): 47-62 (Persian).
    15. Mollaei Mohammad Hassan, Yazdkhasti Fariba. The causal model of the relationship between
    "religion", "psychological hardiness", "secularism" and "problem solving" in soldiers. Two
    Quarterly Journal of Islamic Studies and Psychology. 2018; 13( 24):145-156 (Persian).
    16. Taheri Babak. Emotional Connection, Materialism, and Religiosity: An Islamic Tourism
    Experience. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 2016; 33: 1011–1027.
  2. 17. Swinyard Wr, Ak Kau, Hy Phua. Happiness, Materialism, and Religious Experience in the US
    andSingapore. Journal of Happiness Studies 2001; 2: 13–32.
    18. Belk Russell W.Materialism: Trait Aspects of Living in the Material World. Journal of
    Consumer Research. 1985;12: 265-287.
    19. 1Burroughs J E, Rindfleisch A A. Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective.
    Journal of Consumer Research, 2002; 29: 348–370.
    20. Zarifian Fereshteh. Development of a self-knowledge program with Sadra's approach and
    evaluation of the effectiveness of its education on increasing spiritual intelligence and reducing
    secularism, Master Thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 2013 (Persian).
    21. Akbari Allah Reza, Fathi Ashtiani Ali. A Study of the Relationship between Secularism and
    Mental Health. Scientific-Research Journal of Religious Psychology. 2009; 3(2): 104-143
    22. Ebrahimi Narges, Shahabizadeh Fatemeh. Mental health model in relation to secularism and
    death anxiety. National Congress of Family Pathology (National Festival of Family Studies),
    2014 (Persian).
    23. Bakhshi Nia Shirin. Investigating the Factors Affecting the Forced Purchase of Women: A Case
    Study of Women's Clothing in Hamadan, M.Sc. Thesis. Payame Noor University of Hamadan.
    2016 (Persian).
    24. Mohammadzadeh Barazandeh Nasrin. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Mental
    Health among Athletic and Non-Athletic Female High School Students in Tabriz, Thesis for
    Obtaining a Master's Degree from the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences,
    Department of Motor Behavior. Tabriz University. 2016 (Persian).
    25. Shabani Bahar Gholamreza, Yelfani Ali, Gharleghi Sajjad. Determining the relationship between
    the source of control and general health of student-athlete students and non-athlete non-athlete
    University of Tehran. Journal of Sports Management. 2010;7: 43-59 (Persian).
    26. Seyed Ahmadi Mohammad, Keiwanlu Fahimeh, Kooshan Mohsen, Mohammadi Rauf Mostafa.
    Comparison of mental health status in athlete and non-athlete students. Journal of Sabzevar
    University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2010;17 (2): 116-122 (Persian).
    27. Ramezani Fereydoun, Hejazi Massoud. Comparison of mental health, resilience and mental
    toughness in athletes and non-athletes. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Personality (Behavior
    Scholar).2017; 15(1): 157-166 (Persian).
    28. Hojjati Mohammad Baqer. Islamic Education. Press 7. Tehran: Islamic Propaganda Organization
    Publications,1994 (Persian).
    29. Shafranske E P, Sperry L. Addressing the spiritual dimension in psychotherapy: Introduction and
    overview. In L. Sperry & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), Spiritually oriented Psychotherapy (pp. 11-
    29). Washington, DC: American Psychologic Association. 2005.