The effect of resistance training and spirulina consumption on the antioxidant indices of overweight and obese men

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

2 Professor, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

3 Professor, University of Birjand, Birjand , Iran.

4 Professor, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.


Introduction: Overweight and obesity are related to increased production of free radicals, weakened immune system and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training and spirulina consumption on the antioxidant indices of overweight and obese men.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, which was semi-experimental, practical and single-blind, 44 men (BMI>25(kg/m2)) were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four groups: exercise+spirulina, exercise+placebo, spirulina and placebo. Incremental resistance exercises were performed for 8 weeks. The spirulina and placebo groups took 2 tablets (500 mg) of spirulina and placebo, respectively. Blood sampling was done before and after 8 weeks. In data analysis, t-test (student) and one-way analysis of variance were used.
Results: In intra-group comparison, the amount of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px increased significantly in two groups of exercise+spirulina and exercise+placebo (p<0.05). For the SOD variable, the exercise+spirulina group had a significant increase compared to the other three groups and the exercise+placebo group compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). For the GSH-Px variable, the exercise+spirulina group had a significant increase compared to the spirulina and placebo group and the exercise+placebo group compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). CAT changes were not significant between groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Taking spirulina along with resistance training can strengthen the antioxidant status in overweight and obese people and prevent oxidative stress caused by exercise and obesity.


  1. Kant AK, Graubard BI. Secular trends in patterns of self-reported food consumption of adult
    Americans: NHANES 1971-1975 to NHANES 1999–2002. The American journal of clinical nutrition.
    2. Sinha A, Kling S. A review of adolescent obesity: prevalence, etiology, and treatment. Obesity
    surgery. 2009;19(1):113-20.
    3. Kim M-J, Park M, Jeong MK, Yeo J, Cho W-I, Chang P-S, et al. Radical scavenging activity
    and anti-obesity effects in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation of Ssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.)
    extract. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2010;19(2):535-40.
    4. Olusi S. Obesity is an independent risk factor for plasma lipid peroxidation and depletion of
    erythrocyte cytoprotectic enzymes in humans. International journal of obesity. 2002;26(9):1159-64.
    5. Powers SK, Nelson WB, Hudson MB. Exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans: cause and
    consequences. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011;51(5):942-50.
  2. 6. Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased
    oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical investigation.
    7. Ceci R, Valls MRB, Duranti G, Dimauro I, Quaranta F, Pittaluga M, et al. Oxidative stress
    responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training.
    Redox biology. 2014;2:65-72.
    8. Delavar R, Mogharnasi M, Khoobkhahi N. The effects of combined training on oxidative stress
    and antioxidant defense indicators. Int J Basic Sci Med. 2017;2(1):29-32.
    9. Sankhla M, Sharma TK, Mathur K, Rathor JS, Butolia V, Gadhok AK, et al. Relationship of
    oxidative stress with obesity and its role in obesity induced metabolic syndrome. Clinical laboratory.
    10. Savini I, Catani MV, Evangelista D, Gasperi V, Avigliano L. Obesity-associated oxidative
    stress: strategies finalized to improve redox state. International journal of molecular sciences.
    11. Lauw MN, van Doormaal FF, Middeldorp S, Buller HR, editors. Cancer and venous
    thrombosis: current comprehensions and future perspectives. Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis;
    2013: Thieme Medical Publishers.
    12. Ismaeel A, Holmes M, Papoutsi E, Panton L, Koutakis P. Resistance training, antioxidant
    status, and antioxidant supplementation. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise
    metabolism. 2019;29(5):539-47.
    13. Atashak S. SHarafi h, Azarbayjani M, Goli A, Batorak K. Karimi V Effect of omega-3 fatty
    acid supplementation on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of plasma following a
    resistance exercise session in young athletes Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci. 2013;17:51-9.
    14. Atashak S, Peeri M, Azarbayjani MA, Stannard SR, Haghighi MM. Obesity-related
    cardiovascular risk factors after long-term resistance training and ginger supplementation. Journal of
    sports science & medicine. 2011;10(4):685.
    15. Sachdev S, Davies KJ. Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in
    exercise. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2008;44(2):215-23.
    16. Vincent HK, Morgan JW, Vincent KR. Obesity exacerbates oxidative stress levels after acute
    exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2004;36(5):772-9.
    17. Zembron-Lacny A, Slowinska-Lisowska M, Szygula Z, Witkowski K, Stefaniak T, Dziubek
    W. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscledamaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(2):139-43.
    18. Mansor DA, Abdul Kadir Z, Raja Azidin RF, editors. A Comparison of Periodization Models
    on Muscular Strength. Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise,
    Engineering and Technology 2014 (ICoSSEET 2014); 2014: Springer.
    19. Azizbeigi K, Azarbayjani MA, Peeri M, Agha-Alinejad H, Stannard S. The effect of
    progressive resistance training on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes in
    untrained men. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2013;23(3):230-8.
    20. Samadi A, Gaeini A, Ravasi A, Hedayati M, Rahimi M. The effect of resistance exercise on
    oxidative stress in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal
    of Basic and Clinical Pathophysiology. 2013;2(1):28-33.
    21. Soleymani S, Tofighi A, Babaei Bonab S. Effects of an exhaustive exercise before and after
    aerobic training along with dietary spirulina supplementation on oxidative stress in inactive obese men.
    Journal of Applied Health Studies in Sport Physiology. 2018;5(2):36-44.
    22. Urso ML, Clarkson PM. Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation.
    Toxicology. 2003;189(1-2):41-54.
    23. Jassby A. Spirulina: a model for microalgae as human. Algae and human affairs/edited by
    Carole A Lembi, J Robert Waaland; sponsored by the Phycological Society of America, Inc. 1988.
    24. Mohseni R, Zamani Sedehi A, Arab Sadeghabadi Z, Safaei M, Heiat M. Dietary supplement
    based on microalgae, as a new therapeutic approach in the future. New Cellular and Molecular
    Biotechnology Journal. 2021;11(42):31-54.
  3. 25. Kalafati M, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Sakellariou GK, et al.
    Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
    26. Luo L, Qian L-a, Wang Y, Yuan G. Spirulina platensis extract supplementation attenuates
    oxidative stress in acute exhaustive exercise: a pilot study. International Journal of Physical Sciences.
    27. Brito AdF, Silva AS, De Souza AA, Ferreira PB, De Souza IL, Araujo LCDC, et al. Aortic
    response to strength training and Spirulina platensis dependent on nitric oxide and antioxidants.
    Frontiers in physiology. 2018;9:1522.
    28. Lu H-K, Hsieh C-C, Hsu J-J, Yang Y-K, Chou H-N. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis
    on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress. European journal of applied
    physiology. 2006;98(2):220-6.
    29. Franca G, Silva A, Costa M, Junior J, Nébrega T, Gonçalves M, et al. Spirulina does not
    decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status.
    Biology of Sport. 2010;27(4).
    30. Nikseresht M, Agha-Alinejad H, Azarbayjani MA, Ebrahim K. Effects of nonlinear resistance
    and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese. The
    Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2014;28(9):2560-8.
    31. Brzycki M. A practical approach to strength training: Masters Press Grand Rapids, MI; 1989.
    SAR, et al. Scientific: validity and reproducibility of Iranian food frequency questionnaire. 2014.
    33. Dehghani K, Mogharnasi M, Saghebjoo M, Sarir H, Malekaneh M. The effect of eight weeks
    of circuit resistance training and spirulina supplementation on plasma levels of irisin and some body
    composition in overweight and obese men. Armaghane danesh. 2020;25(3):332-45.
    34. Gholamimoghadam S, Mogharnasi M. The Effect of Spirulina Supplementation and Circuit
    Resistance Training (CRT) on Plasma Values of Resistin, and Some Indicators of Body Composition
    of Overweight, and Obese Police Officers. Journal of Police Medicine. 2021;10(3):149-58.
    35. Dehghani K, Mogharnasi M, Sarir H, Malekaneh M. Changes in lipocalin-2 levels after
    resistance training (RT) and consumption of spirulina microalgae in overweight and obese men.
    KAUMS Journal (FEYZ). 2021:0-.
    36. Dehghani K, Mogharnasi M, Saghebjoo M, Malekaneh M, Sarir H. Effect of Spirulina platensis
    green-blue algae consumption, and circuit resistance training (CRT) on lipid profile in overweight and
    obese middle-aged men. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2021;28(3):248-59.
    37. Koozehchian MS, Kazaj KT, Sarshin A, Gaeini A, Naderi A, Stannard SR, et al. Effects of
    short-term spirulina supplementation on oxidative stress markers in mountaineers at high altitude. Med
    Sci Sport Exerc. 2019;51:88-.
    38. Chenari M, Rahimi A, Sarshin A, Feizolahi F. Compare The Effect Of Six Weeks Of Aerobic
    And Resistance Training On Apoptotic Indice Of Caspase-8 And Catalase In The Heart Tissue Of Male
    Diabetic Rats. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 2022;22(2):110-20.
    39. Sadegh Ghomi M, Kashef M, Shahidi F, Salehpour M, Javadieh M, Noroozi Nia MJ.
    Comparison of the effect of eight-week training in water, resistance ladder and endurance running on
    catalase, malondialdehyde, vaspin and insulin resistance in male rats. Daneshvar Medicine.
    40. Mir Javadi SR, Rahimi A, Aghaei F, Mohsenzadeh M. The effect of resistance training and
    endothelial stem cell injection on skeletal muscle antioxidant enzymes in type 1 diabetic rats. Razi
    Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021;28(9):172-83.
    41. Parise G, Brose AN, Tarnopolsky MA. Resistance exercise training decreases oxidative damage
    to DNA and increases cytochrome oxidase activity in older adults. Experimental gerontology.
    42. García‐López D, Häkkinen K, Cuevas M, Lima E, Kauhanen A, Mattila M, et al. Effects of
    strength and endurance training on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and activity in middle‐aged
    men. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2007;17(5):595-604.
  4. 43. Rattan SI. Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals. Free radical research.
    44. Siu PM, Pei XM, Teng BT, Benzie IF, Ying M, Wong SH. Habitual exercise increases
    resistance of lymphocytes to oxidant‐induced DNA damage by upregulating expression of antioxidant
    and DNA repairing enzymes. Experimental physiology. 2011;96(9):889-906.
    45. Carrera-Quintanar L, Funes L, Vicente-Salar N, Blasco-Lafarga C, Pons A, Micol V, et al.
    Effect of polyphenol supplements on redox status of blood cells: a randomized controlled exercise
    training trial. European journal of nutrition. 2015;54(7):1081-93.
    46. Agahi MRH, Mosallanejad Z, Salehi OR. The effects of resistance training and spirulina on the
    performance of the antioxidant system with emphasis on mir125b, mir146a and cognitive function in
    stanazolol-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2022:110112.
    47. Kashani A, Keshavarz SA, Jafari-Vayghan H, Azam K, Hozoori M, Alinavaz M, et al.
    Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on exercise-induced muscle damage, oxidative stress and
    inflammation in taekwondo athletes: a randomized cross-over trial.
    48. LIU JF, CHANG WY, CHAN KH, TSAI WY, LIN CL, HSU MC. Blood lipid peroxides and
    muscle damage increased following intensive resistance training of female weightlifters. Annals of the
    New York Academy of Sciences. 2005;1042(1):255-61.
    49. Landis GN, Tower J. Superoxide dismutase evolution and life span regulation. Mechanisms of
    ageing and development. 2005;126(3):365-79.
    50. Kalvandi F, Azizbeigi K, Azarbayjani MA. Effects of Elastic Resistance Training and
    Traditional Weight Training on Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Markers in Untrained Men. The
    Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2019;8(3):57-65.
    51. Mardani A, Abednatanzi H, Gholami M, Ghazalian F, Azizbeigi K. Effect of intensity sequence of
    resistance training on some antioxidants factors and Malondialdehyde plasma in over weight men. The Scientific
    Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2022;10(6):1258-69.
    52. Goodarzi F, Nikbakht H, Abednatanzi H, Ebrahim K, Ghazaliyan F. Aerobic and resistance training on
    some oxidative markers and TGF-β in cardiac tissue of elderly rats. RAZI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
    (JOURNAL OF IRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES),[online]. 2020;27(3):93-100.