The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the effect of mental well-being of patients with improved corona pandemic (COVID-19) at the height of the epidemic

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Phd student psychology, Department of Psychology, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

2 Assistan professor, department of Psychology, Zahedan branch, Islamic, Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

3 Professor of Psychology University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.


The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the psychological well-being of recovered COVID-19 patients at the peak of the pandemic. This research was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population of this study included all recovered COVID-19 patients at the peak of the pandemic in Isfahan (n=30) who were selected by purposive sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (15 people in each group). After performing the pretest, the experimental group received a CBT program for 12 sessions, and then the posttest was performed. The required data were collected using the Warwick-Edinburgh psychological well-being scale (WEMWBS; 2007) and were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) using SPSS-20 software. Findings showed that CBT increased psychological well-being (P<0.01). Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that CBT can be considered an effective treatment in increasing psychological well-being components such as optimism, positive relationships with others, being energetic in recovered COVID-19 patients.


  1. Bogucki, O. E., Craner, J. R., Berg, S. L., Wolsey, M. K., Miller, S. J., Smyth, K. T., ... & Sawchuk, C.
    N. (2021). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Outcomes from a Multi-State, MultiSite Primary Care Practice. Journal of anxiety disorders, 78, 102345.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102345
    2. Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of
    the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry research, 287, 112934. DOI:
    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Chronic kidney disease in the United States, 2021.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021.
    4. Day, P. (2009). The use of CBT to strengthen emotional wellbeing. British Journal of School
    Nursing, 4(3), 130-132.
    5. Duong, K. N. C., Le Bao, T. N., Nguyen, P. T. L., Van, T. V., Lam, T. P., Gia, A. P., ... & Van, B. V.
    (2020). Psychological impacts of COVID-19 during the first nationwide lockdown in Vietnam: webbased, cross-sectional survey study. JMIR formative research, 4(12), e24776. DOI: 10.2196/24776
    6. Jaggi, P., & Saleem, Z. (2020). Ageing population of Urban India & psychological well-being
    issues. International Journal of Social Science, 9(3), 169-184.
    7. Jameel, L. (2020). Virtual-reality assisted CBT for social difficulties: a feasibility study in early
    intervention for psychosis services (Doctoral dissertation, King's College London).
    8. Karimi, S., Kakabraei, K., Yazdanbakhsh, K., & Moradi, Gh. (2014). The effectiveness of cognitivebehavioral therapy on the mental well-being of cardiovascular patients. Journal of Kermanshah Medical
    Sciences, 3(76), 53-68.
    9. Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A
    nationwide survey of psychological distress among Italian people during the COVID-19 pandemic:
    immediate psychological responses and associated factors. International journal of environmental
    research and public health, 17(9), 3165. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093165
    10. Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., ... & Huang, H. (2020). Ansiedad en las
    enfermeras chinas para apoyar a Wuhan en la lucha contra la epidemia COVID-19. Journal of Nursing
    Management [revista en internet], 28(05), 1002-1009. DOI: 10.1111/jonm.13014
    11. Santosh, K. C., & Joshi, A. (Eds.). (2021). COVID-19: prediction, decision-making, and its impacts.
    Berlin: Springer.
    12. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and
    Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for the treatment of co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological
    gambling: A case study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(2), 181-196.
    13. Snyder, C. R. (Ed.). (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications. Academic press.
  2. 14. Stallman, H. M., Beaudequin, D., Hermens, D. F., & Eisenberg, D. (2021). Modelling the relationship
    between healthy and unhealthy coping strategies to understand overwhelming distress: A Bayesian
    network approach. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 3, 100054.
    15. Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., ... & Stewart-Brown, S. (2007). The
    Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and
    Quality of life Outcomes, 5(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-63
    16. Torales, J., O'Higgins, M., & Mauricio, J. Castaldelli-Maia, & Ventriglio, A.(2020). The outbreak of
    COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. Pubmed, 66(4), 317-320.
    DOI: 10.1177/0020764020915212
    17. Tov, W., & Diener, E. (2009). Culture and subjective well-being. In Culture and well-being (pp. 9-41).
    Springer, Dordrecht.
    18. Waller, H., Emsley, R., Freeman, D., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G., Fowler, D., ... & Garety, P. (2015).
    Thinking Well: A randomised controlled feasibility study of a new CBT therapy targeting reasoning
    biases in people with distressing persecutory delusional beliefs. Journal of Behavior Therapy and
    Experimental Psychiatry, 48, 82-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.02.007
    19. Weiner, L., Berna, F., Nourry, N., Severac, F., Vidailhet, P., & Mengin, A. C. (2020). Efficacy of an
    online cognitive behavioral therapy program developed for healthcare workers during the COVID-19
    pandemic: the REduction of STress (REST) study protocol for a randomized controlled
    trial. Trials, 21(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04772-7
    20. Wells, I. E. (2010). Psychology of emotions, motivations and actions: Psychological well-being. New
    York: Nova Science Publisher, Inc. 6(9), 111334.