Developing a quantitative model of the pattern of lack of identity and social status in middle-aged professional athletes

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student of sports management, Islamic Azad University of Karaj

2 Department of Sociology, Research Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Social Sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction:  Purpose of the present study was to develop a quantitative model based on lack of identity and social status in middle-aged professional athletes.
Method: This research was conducted using Explorative Mixed method and considered as an applied study in terms of objective. The statistical population consisted of middle-aged professional athletes in the country70 middle-aged professional athletes of the country participated in the present study by available sampling method. In order to collect information, a semi-structured interview and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect information. The reliability of questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (= α 0.79). Content-related validity was evaluated by 10 sports experts and its construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, partial least squares and SPSS24 and smart pls software.
Results:  Results of the research model showed that reward and wealth, respect and influence, and managerial factors had the most impact on the identity and social status of middle-aged professional athletes with factor loads of 0.830, 0.821 and 0.774, respectively. On the other hand, components of individual conditions, value and importance, social relations and family relations had the least effect on the identity and social status of middle-aged professional athletes with factor loads of 0.235, 0.315, 0.323 and 0.334, respectively.
Conclusion: it is suggested to provide a basis for improving the status and social identity of middle-aged professional athletes by increasing facilities and salaries, their greater participation in major sports decisions and support management.


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