Epidemiology of Injuries in Toddlers and Infants (6-24 Months)


1 Assistant professor of Pediatrics, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 General Practitioner,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Master of Science in Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University Of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 -Associate professor of Biostatics,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Injury is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy children. There are few data (especially in Iran)about epidemiology and incidence of injury in the first two years of life.
Materials and Methods
This research was a cross sectional descriptive study on a group of 1000 infants (6-24 months old), from all the health care centers in Mashhad, who were evaluated about the history of any kind of injury since birth. The study was performed in autumn of 2004.
The mean age of the study group was 13.8±7.8 months. During this time 55.7% of the infants had experienced some kind of injury.The occurred injuries in order of frequency were Falls (13.4%), Chocking due to foreign body aspiration (12.8%), Cuts and lacerations (11.9%), Burning (10.9%), Poisoning (3.9%) Traffic accidents (1.5%) Drowning (0.7%) and electrical injuries (0.6%). Overall Fifty infants (5%) in our group were visited (for accident) in an office by a doctor, which burning (with 16 outpatient visits) was the most common injury in this group. There was history of 80 hospital admission in the study group but only seven of them were due to accidents, and poisoning in three cases was the most common cause of injury related admission.
The periodic prevalence of injuries in our study group was 55.7%. Falls, Chocking (due to foreign body aspiration), Cuts and burns were (in order of frequency) the most common types of the injuries in infants of Mashhad. Injury was not a significant cause for hospital admission in this age group.


1- Peden M, McGee K, Krug E. Injury: A leading cause of the global burden of disease in 2000. World Health
Organization; 2002.p. 8.
2- Nagavi M, Jafari N. Projection of mortality in 29 states of Iran at 2004, Ministry of health and medical education Of
Islamic Republic Of Iran; 2007.
3- Rivara FP, Grossman DC. Injury Control. In: Kliegman M, Stanton B. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed.
Saunders Elsevier; 2011.p.17-25.
4- Canadian Institute for Health Information. 2000 Report: Injury deaths in Ontario, 1997/98. Ottawa, ON: Canadian
Institute for Health Information; 2000.
5- Canadian Institute for Health Information. 2001 Report: Hospital injury admissions. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for
Health Information; 2001.
6- Kingston and Region Injury Surveillance Program. Internal Report of Annual Injury Counts. Kingston, ON: Queen’s
University; 2002.
7- MacInnes K, Stone DH. Stages of development and injury: an epidemiologicalsurvey of young children presenting to
an emergency department. BMC Public Health 2008; 14:8:120
8- National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System
(WISQARS) Injury Mortality Reports, 1999 –2000. http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcaus10.html
9- Powell EC, Tanz RR. Adjusting our view of injury risk: the burden of nonfatal injuries in infancy. Pediatrics 2002;
10- Carpenter RF. The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies. Arch Dis Child 1999; 80:363-366.
11- Macgregor DM. Accident and emergency attendances by children under the age of 1 year as a result of injury.
Emerg Med J 2003; 20:21–24.
12- Pickett W, Streight S, Simpson K, Brison RJ. Injuries experienced by infant children: a population-based
epidemiological analysis. Pediatrics 2003; 111:e365-370.
13 - Warrington SA, Wright CM, ALSPAC Study Team. Accidents and resulting injuries in premobile infants. Arch Dis
Child 2001; 85:104 –107.
14- Datubo-Brown DD, Gowar JP. Contact burns in children. Burns 1989; 15:285–286.
15- Phillips W, Mahairas E, Hunt D, Pegg SP. The epidemiology of childhood scalds in Brisbane. Burns 1986; 12:343–350.
16- Banco L, Lapidus G, Zavoski R, Braddock M. Burn injuries among children in an urban emergency department.
Pediatr Emerg Care 1994; 10:98–101.
17- Agran PF, Anderson C, Winn D, Trent R, Walton-Haynes L, Thayer S. Rates of Pediatric Injuries by 3-Month
Intervals for Children 0 to 3 Years of Age. Pediatrics 2003; 111:e683-e692.
18- Maddocks GB, Sibert JR, Brown BM. A four week study of accidents to children in South Glamorgan. Public
Health 1978; 92:171–176.
19- Künster AK, Wucher A, Thurn L, Kindler H, Fischer D, Ziegenhain U.[Epidemiology of risks and child
maltreatment in early childhood: a pilot study]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2011; 60:206-223.
20- Matschke J, Herrmann B, Sperhake J, Kö rber F, Bajanowski T, Glatzel M. Shaken baby syndrome: a common
variant of non-accidental head injury in infants. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106:211-217.