The effect of interval training and Nano selenium supplementation on the expression of testicular HSP70 and PGC-1α genes in dexamethasone induced rats

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc in Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.(Corresponding Author)

3 Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education, Mahallat Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahallat, Iran.


Introduction: Exercise Training and selenium is an effective way to strengthen the immune system. The purpose of this research is the effect of interval training and nano selenium supplementation on the expression of testicular HSP70 and PGC-1α genes in dexamethasone induced rats.
Materials and Methods: 40 Wistar rats aged 10 weeks were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 (healthy, under dexamethasone induction (patient), patient + interval training, patient + Nano selenium supplement, patient + interval training + consumption Nano selenium supplement) were divided. The exercise program consisted of 5-12 repetitions of 1-minute running on the rodent treadmill with an intensity of 24-30 m/min, equivalent to 75-100% of maximal oxygen consumption, with active rest intervals of 75 seconds. These exercises were performed six days a week for four weeks. The prepared selenium nanoparticle solution, 100 mg in 250 nm size, was given to mice by gavage every other day. Three-way analysis of variance was used to determine the difference in variables between groups at a significant level (P<0.05). All statistical calculations were done using Excel and SPSS version 25 software.
Results: The results obtained from the research showed that interval training led to a significant increase in HSP70 (P<0.05). Also, the expression of PGC-1α gene in the group of Nano selenium supplementation and interval training led to a significant increase (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the present study, it seems that interval training and Nano selenium supplementation leads to a significant increase in HSP70 and PGC-1α, which plays an important role in improving the immune function of patients with weak immune system.


  1. Annie L, Gurusubramanian G, Kumar Roy V. Dexamethasone mediated downregulation of PGC-1α and visfatin regulates testosterone synthesis and antioxidant system in mouse testis. Acta Histochem. 2019 Feb;121(2):182-188. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2018.12.004. Epub 2018 Dec 19. PMID: 30579591.
  2. Whirledge S, Cidlowski JA. Glucocorticoids, stress, and fertility. Minerva Endocrinol. 2010 Jun;35(2):109-25. PMID: 20595939; PMCID: PMC3547681.
  3. Vieira JS, Saraiva KL, Barbosa MC, Porto RC, Cresto JC, Peixoto CA, Wanderley MI, Udrisar DP. Effect of dexamethasone and testosterone treatment on the regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme and cellular changes in ventral rat prostate after castration. Int J Exp Pathol. 2011 Aug;92(4):272-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2613.2011.00772.x. Epub 2011 Apr 21. PMID: 21507087; PMCID: PMC3144516.
  4. Orazizadeh M, Khorsandi LS, Hashemitabar M. Toxic effects of dexamethasone on mouse testicular germ cells. Andrologia. 2010 Aug;42(4):247-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.00985.x. PMID: 20629648.
  5. Er H, Acar N, Kipmen-Korgun D, Celik-Ozenci C, Ustunel I, Asar M, Korgun ET. Determination of PCNA, cyclin D3, p27, p57 and apoptosis rate in normal and dexamethasone-induced intrauterine growth restricted rat placentas. Acta Histochem. 2015 Mar;117(2):137-47. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2014.11.010. Epub 2015 Jan 13. PMID: 25596037.
  6. Kewalramani G, Puthanveetil P, Kim MS, Wang F, Lee V, Hau N, Beheshti E, Ng N, Abrahani A, Rodrigues B. Acute dexamethasone-induced increase in cardiac lipoprotein lipase requires activation of both Akt and stress kinases. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;295(1):E137-47. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00004.2008. Epub 2008 May 6. PMID: 18460599.
  7. Rius-Pérez S, Torres-Cuevas I, Millán I, Ortega ÁL, Pérez S. PGC-1α, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress: An Integrative View in Metabolism. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Mar 9;2020:1452696. doi: 10.1155/2020/1452696. PMID: 32215168; PMCID: PMC7085407.
  8. Rahnert JA, Zheng B, Hudson MB, Woodworth-Hobbs ME, Price SR. Glucocorticoids Alter CRTC-CREB Signaling in Muscle Cells: Impact on PGC-1α Expression and Atrophy Markers. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 12;11(7):e0159181. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159181. PMID: 27404111; PMCID: PMC4942104.
  9. Widłak W. Odpowiedź na stres komórkowy i ekspresja genów HSP70 w meskich komórkach rozrodczych [The heat shock response and HSP70 gene expression in male germ cells]. Postepy Biochem. 2006;52(3):289-95. Polish. PMID: 17201064.
  10. Asano T, Tanaka K, Yamakawa N, Adachi H, Sobue G, Goto H, Takeuchi K, Mizushima T. HSP70 confers protection against indomethacin-induced lesions of the small intestine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):458-67. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.152181. Epub 2009 May 20. PMID: 19458285.
  11. Asano T, Tanaka K, Yamakawa N, Adachi H, Sobue G, Goto H, Takeuchi K, Mizushima T. HSP70 confers protection against indomethacin-induced lesions of the small intestine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Aug;330(2):458-67. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.152181. Epub 2009 May 20. PMID: 19458285.
  12. Fanaeei H, Azizi Y, Khayat S. The role of stress oxidative in infertility male. A review Fasa Medical University Journal (FMUJ). 2014;2:93-103.
  13. Hosseini M, Eftekhar B, Riyahi Malayeri S. Effect of Interval Training with Curcumin Consumption on Some Adipokines in Menopausal Obese Rats. JRUMS. 2017; 16 (6) :505-516URL:
  14. Hedayati S, Riyahi Malayeri S, Hoseini M. The Effect of Eight Weeks of High and Moderate Intensity Interval Training Along with Aloe Vera Consumption on Serum Levels of Chemerin, Glucose and Insulin in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats: An Experimental Study. JRUMS. 2018; 17 (9) :801-814.URL:
  15. Asgari Hazaveh D, Riyahi Malayeri S, Babaei S. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2018; 20 (11) :67-75
  16. URL:
  17. Riyahi Malayeri S, Abdolhay S, Behdari R, Hoseini M. The combined effect of resveratrol supplement and endurance training on IL-10 and TNF- α in type 2 diabetic rats. RJMS. 2019; 25 (12) :140-149. URL:
  18. Burk RF, Hill KE, Motley AK. Selenoprotein metabolism and function: evidence for more than one function for selenoprotein P. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 1):1517S-20S. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.5.1517S. PMID: 12730456.
  19. Surai P, Kostjuk I, Wishart G, Macpherson A, Speake B, Noble R, Ionov I, Kutz E. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation of cockerel diets on glutathione peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation susceptibility in sperm, testes, and liver. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Summer;64(1-3):119-32. doi: 10.1007/BF02783329. PMID: 9845467.
  20. Zhou JC, Zheng S, Mo J, Liang X, Xu Y, Zhang H, Gong C, Liu XL, Lei XG. Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats. J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1947-1953. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.252544. Epub 2017 Aug 16. PMID: 28814533.
  21. Mohammadi, S., Rostamkhani, F., Riyahi Malayeri, S. et al. High-intensity interval training with probiotic supplementation decreases gene expression of NF-κβ and CXCL2 in small intestine of rats with steatosis. Sport Sci Health 18, 491–497 (2022).
  22. Dehghani F, Hossieni SA, Noorafshan A, Panjehshahin MR, Esmaeilpour T. Effect of Selenium on Quantitative Structural Changes in Dexamethasone-Induced Immunodeficiency Rat Models. Iran J Med Sci. 2021 Mar;46(2):128-135. doi: 10.30476/ijms.2020.81137.0. PMID: 33753957; PMCID: PMC7966932.
  23. Moayeri, P., Kojouri, G., Jafari dehkordi, A., Ahadi, A. M. Study of Selenium Nanoparticles and Sodium Selenite Supplementation Effects on Expression of Leptin Gene in Pregnant Ewes Placenta. Journal of Veterinary Research, 2018; 73(4): 475-482. doi: 10.22059/jvr.2019.228023.2592.
  24. Riyahi Malayeri S, Azadniya A, Rasaee M J. Effect of eight-week High intensity interval training nd resveratrol intake on serum adiponectin and resistin in type 2 diabetic rats. Ijdld 2019; 18 (1) :8-1. URL:
  25. Isanejad, A., HasanSarraf, Z., Mahdavi, M., Gharakhanlou, R. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Serum Levels of TNF-α, IL - 1β, IL-6 and HSP70 in Rats. Journal of Sport Biosciences, 2013; 4(15): 91-106. doi: 10.22059/jsb.2013.29780.
  26. Gomez CR. Role of heat shock proteins in aging and chronic inflammatory diseases. Geroscience. 2021 Oct;43(5):2515-2532. doi: 10.1007/s11357-021-00394-2. Epub 2021 Jul 9. PMID: 34241808; PMCID: PMC8599533.
  27. Riyahi Malayeri S, Hoseini M. The effect of acute exercise on vaspin and chemerin levels in obese men. JBRMS. 2021; 8 (1) :58-66.URL:
  28. Krause M, Heck TG, Bittencourt A, Scomazzon SP, Newsholme P, Curi R, Homem de Bittencourt PI Jr. The chaperone balance hypothesis: the importance of the extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio to inflammation-driven type 2 diabetes, the effect of exercise, and the implications for clinical management. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:249205. doi: 10.1155/2015/249205. Epub 2015 Feb 26. PMID: 25814786; PMCID: PMC4357135.
  29. Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011 Aug 5;11(9):607-15. doi: 10.1038/nri3041. PMID: 21818123.
  30. Tarverdizadeh, B., Bedrous Oghoubian Salmasi, M. The Effect of Interval Training on HSP70 and Some Inflammatory, Growth and Functional Markers among Women with Breast Cancer. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 2016; 19(37): 16-24. doi: 10.22038/ijogi.2016.818.
  31. Bagherian M, Banaeifar A, Arshadi S, Azarbayjani M. THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE TYPE ON THE EXPRESSION OF PGC-1A AND HEART TISSUE TRIGLYCERIDE CONTENT IN RATS WITH FATTY LIVER (NAFLD). Studies in Medical Sciences. 2020; 31 (4) :282-294URL:
  32. Baghadam M, Mohamadzadeh salamat K, Azizbeidi K, Baesi K. THE EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS AEROBIC TRAINING ON CARDIAC PGC-1Α AND PLASMA IRISIN IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETICS’ RATS. ijdld. 2019; 18 (5) :228-235.URL:
  33. Mombeyni A, Bahmanzade M, Sarami A, Changizi-Ashtiyani S, Parastesh M. The Effect of Increasing Resistance Training on Testicular Oxidative Stress and Quality of Spermatogenesis in Male Rats. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2018; 21 (4) :86-97.URL:
  34. Drevet JR, Aitken RJ. Oxidation of Sperm Nucleus in Mammals: A Physiological Necessity to Some Extent with Adverse Impacts on Oocyte and Offspring. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Jan 23;9(2):95. doi: 10.3390/antiox9020095. PMID: 31979208; PMCID: PMC7070651.
  35. Omidi Z, Piravar Z, Ramezani M. The effect of acrylamide on mitochondrial membrane potential and glutathione extraction in human spermatozoa: A laboratory study. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2020 Oct 13;18(10):855-864. doi: 10.18502/ijrm.v13i10.7770. PMID: 33134798; PMCID: PMC7569713.
  36. Jervis KM, Robaire B. The effects of long-term vitamin E treatment on gene expression and oxidative stress damage in the aging Brown Norway rat epididymis. Biol Reprod. 2004 Oct;71(4):1088-95. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.104.028886. Epub 2004 Jun 2. PMID: 15175234.
  37. Srivastava S. The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging and Age-Related Disorders. Genes (Basel). 2017 Dec 19;8(12):398. doi: 10.3390/genes8120398. PMID: 29257072; PMCID: PMC5748716.