Association between Dietary Factors and Obesity in Neishabour School Children

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Master of Science (MSc)in Public Health Nutrition,Nutrition and Biochemistry Department,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor in Nutrition and Biochemistry Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor Associate in Statistic, Statistic and Epidemiology Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Master of Science (MSc) in Nutrition,Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shaheed Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


The prevalence of childhood obesity in developed and developing countries is increasing. Different factors which are associated with childhood obesity should be assessed in each society. This study conducted to determine dietary risk factors of Neishabour school children in winter 2006.
Materials and Methods
In a cross-sectional study 1471 students aged 6-12 years were selected using two stage cluster sampling. Pupils' height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Obesity was defined as having a BMI>= 95th percentile of Iranian reference; in this way, 114 students were selected as case group and control group were students having 15th =<BMI=<85th. Control group was matched with case by age, school and classroom. Twelve students of control group were omitted because of not willing to enter the study (control=102 students). To find out dietary risk factors associated with childhood obesity, in each instance we interviewed the mother and the child for filling 24 hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire.
Results showed that the average of daily calorie intake in cases was significantly higher than the control group (2413.1±542.2 vs. 1762.1±411.7; p<0.001). Daily energy intake from carbohydrate, protein and fat considerably different between two groups (p<0.001). The Frequency of cola, chips, puffs, chocolate, natural fruit juice and fast foods was remarkably different between the case and control groups (p<0.001).
Preventive actions are necessary to be planned for childhood obesity.


1-Celi F, Bini V, Giorgi G De , Molinari D, Faraoni F, Di Stefano G ,et al. Epidemiology of overweight and obesity
among school children and adolescents in three provinces of central Italy, 1993-2001: study of potential influencing
variables. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57:1045-1051. 
2-Hardus PM, Vuuren CL van, Crawford D, Worsley A. Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity
among primary school children. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 1465-1471.
3-Magarey MA, Daniels LA, Boulton TJC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents:
reassessment of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions. Med J Aust 2001; 174: 561-564.
4-Ogden CL, Flegal KG, Carrol MD, Jonson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and
adolescence, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288:1728-1732.
5-Termblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT Willms JD. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981-1996. Ann
Hum Biol 2003; 29:11-25.
6-Kain J, Uauy R, Vio F, Albala C. Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: comparison of
three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56:200-204.
7-Wang G, Dietz WH. Economic burden of obesity in youth's age 6 to 17 years: 1979-1999. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 81.
8-Dorosty AR, Siassi F, Reilly JJ. Obesity in Iranian children. Arch Dis Child 2002; 87: 388-391.
9- Final Report of Glucose and Lipid Study. Endocrine Research Center. Shaheed Beheshti Unive Med Sci 1380, 12:74.
10- Falkner B ,Michel S. Obesity and other risk factors in children. Ethn Dis 1999; 9:284-28.
11- Chen JL, Kennedy Ch. Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Pediatr Nurs 2005; 31:110-115.
12- Allahverdian S, Mirmiran P, Rahmani M, Nasrabadi F, Azizi F. Dietary intake and obesity in a group of Tehranian
Adolescents: Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study. Endoc Metabol J Shaheed Beheshti Unive Med Sci 2000; 2;175-185.
13- Golden BE. Infancy, childhood and adolescence. In: Garrow JS, James WPT, Ralph A. eds. Human Nutrition and
Dietetics. 10th ed. London: Churchil Livingstone; 2000.p. 460.
14- Danielzik S, Czerwinski-Mast M, Langnase K, Dilba B , Muller MJ. Parenteral overweight, socioeconomic status
and high birth weight are the major determinant of overweight and obesity in 5-7 y-old children: baseline data of the
Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Intr J Obes 2004; 28:1494-1502.
15- Speiser PW, Rudolf MCJ, Anhalt H, Camacho-Hubner C, Chiarelli F, Eliakim A. Consensus statement: Chilhood
obesity. J Clin Endoc Met 2005; 90: 1871-1887.
16- Karamsoltani Z. The study of obesity and food security and some associated factors in Yazd primary school children.
Winter 2004, Thesis of MSc in Public Health Nurtition, Public Health Faculty of Tehran University, 2004-2005.
17- Tabatabaee M. The study of obesity prevalence and some associated factors in primary school children of Ahwaz.
Thesis of MSc in Public Health Nutrition, Public Health Faculty of Tehran University, 2003-2004.
18- Hojat P. The study of obesity prevalence and some associated factors in primary school girls of area number 6 of
Tehran. Thesis of MSc in Public Health Nutrition, Public Health Faculty of Tehran University, 2002-2003.
19- Wu Fei-Ling, Yu Shu, Weil len-Lan, Yin Teresa JC. Weight-Control Behavior Among Obese Children:
Association with Family- Related Factors. J Nurs Res 2003; 11:19-29.
20- Golan M , Scott C. Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems. Nutr Rev
2004; 62:39-50.
21- Hosseini M, Carpenter RG, Mohammad K, Jones ME. Standard percentile curves of body mass index of Iranian
children compared to US population reference. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23:783-786.
22- Gillis LJ, Kennedy LC, Gillis AM, Bar-Or O. Relationship between juvenile obesity, dietary energy and fat intake
and physical activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26:458-463.
23- McGoline AF, Livingstone MBE, Greene LC, Webb SE, Gibson JMA, Jebb SA, et al. Energy and fat intake in
obese and lean children at varying risk of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab. Disord 2002; 26:200-207.
24- Von Kries R, Toschke A, Koetzko B, Slikker W. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Am J
Epidemiol 2002; 156: 954-961.
25- Tanasescu M, Ferris AM, Himmelgreen DA, Rodiguez N, Perez- Escamilla R. Biobihavioral factors associated
with obesity in Puerto Rican children. J Nutr 2000; 130:1734-1742.
26- Kant AK. Reported consumption of low-nutrient-density foods by American children and adolescent: nutritional
and health correlates. NHANES III, 1988 to 1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157:789-796.
27- Dorosty AR. Epidemiology of childhood obesity. PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow, 2001.
28- Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker S. Relation between consumption of sugar- sweetened drinks and childhood
obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lanset 2001; 357:505-508.
29- Lin BH, Huang CL, French SA. Factors associated with women's and children's body mass indices by income
status. Int J Obes 2004; 28:536-542.
30- Ishihara T, Takeda Y, Mizutani T, Okamoto M, Koga M, Tamura U, et al .Relationships between infant lifestyle and
adolescent obesity. The Enzan maternal-and-child health longitudinal study. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2003; 50:106-117.
31- Gillis LJ, Bar-Or O. Food away from home, sugar-sweetened drink consumption and juvenile obesity. J Am Coll
Nutr 2003; 22:539-545.
32- Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effect of fast food consumption on energy
intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 2004; 113:112-118.
33- Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implication. J Am Coll
Nutr 2002; 21:1465-1515.