تدوین برنامه مداخله به‌هنگام مبتنی بر کارکردهای اجرایی و بررسی اثربخشی آن بر بهبود عملکرد عصب شناختی کودکان کم‌توان ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیارگروه روانشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد یار گروه روانشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه
 با توجه به نقش کلیدی کارکردهای اجرایی در موفقیت تحصیلی و اجتماعی کودکان از سویی و آسیب­ها و نقایص شناختی کودکان با کم­ توان ذهنی از سوی دیگر و همچنین با تکیه بر کارآمدی مداخلات بهنگام به عنوان یکی از اصول پذیرفته شده در فرایند آموزش و درمان کودکان با نیازهای ویژه، هدف این پژوهش تدوین برنامه مداخله بهنگام مبتنی بر کارکردهای اجرایی و بررسی اثربخشی آن بر عملکرد عصب شناختی کودکان با کم­توانی ذهنی آموزش­پذیر است.
روش کار
روش این پژوهش آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون، پس‏آزمون و پیگیری با گروه کنترل است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش عبارتند از تمامی کودکان با کم­توان­ذهنی آموزش ­پذیر باهوشبهر 50 تا 70 که در دوره پیش دبستانی مدارس استثنایی شهر تهران مشغول به تحصیل هستند. از این میان تعداد 20 نفر با روش نمونه­گیری غیرتصادفی هدفمند انتخاب و در دوگروه آزمایش(12نفر ) و گروه کنترل (8 نفر)تقسیم شدند. داده­های این پژوهش که با استفاده از نسخه نوین هوش ­آزمای تهران- استنفورد- بینه و آزمون عصب روانشناختی کانرز گردآوری شده ­اند با استفاده از آزمون اندازه­ گیری مکرر چند متغیری توسط نرم افزار SPSS تحلیل شدند.
نتایج
یافته­ های پژوهش حاکی از آن است برنامه مداخله بهنگام مبتنی بر کارکردهای اجرایی منجر به افزایش معنی­دار توانایی ­های عصب ­شناختی توجه، عملکرد حسی حرکتی، حافظه و یادگیری و کارکردهای اجرایی در میان کودکان کم­توان ذهنی گروه آزمایش شده است. با این­حال برنامه مذکور منجر به افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد زبانی در میان این کودکان نشده است. 
نتیجه گیری
با توجه به یافته ­های این پژوهش، پیشنهاد می ­شود، کارکردهای اجرایی با توجه به اهمیت بسیار زیادی که در عملکرد شناختی و اجتماعی کودکان کم توان ذهنی ایفا می­ کنند، به عنوان ستون و محور مداخلات بهنگام در نظر گرفته شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development Of Early Intervention Program Based On Executive Functions And its effectiveness on improving the neurological function Of Children With Intellectual Disability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedighe Rezaei 1
  • Zahra Eftekhari Saadi 2
  • Fariba Hafezi 3
  • Alireza Heydarei 4
1 PhD Student of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children,Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran,Author of Correspondefce
3 Assistant Professor, Department of psychology, Ahvaz Branch,Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction: Considering the key role of executive functions in children's academic and social success, and the cognitive impairments of children with intellectual disabilities, as well as relying on the efficacy of early intervention as one of the accepted principles in the process of education and treatment of children with special needs, The purpose of this study was to develop a early intervention program based on executive functions and to evaluate its effectiveness on the neuropsychological performance improvement of children with intellectual disabilities
Methods: The method of this research is experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up with the control group. The statistical population of this study is all children with a low educational level of 50 to 70 students who are studying in the pre-school period of exceptional schools in Tehran. Among them, 20 subjects were selected by non-random sampling method and divided into two groups (n = 12) and control (n = 8). The data of this study, which were collected using the neuropsychological Conner's questionnaire test, were using SPSS software for analyzed  MANCOVER repeated measures test.
Results: The findings of the present study indicate that a early intervention program based on executive functions has led to a significant increase in neurological cognitive abilities, motor sensory function, memory and learning, and executive functions among the children with intellectual disabilities. However, the program did not lead to a significant increase in language performance among these children.
Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that executive functions should be considered as a pillar and axis of early interventions, given the great importance they play in the cognitive and social functioning of children with intellectual disabilities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Early intervention
  • Executive functions
  • Neurological Function
  • intellectual disabilities
 

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